Find out about Pulse Wave Analysis

Devices

In the following table, we judge and conclude about the devices based on their applicability of the daily routine clinical use and/or research purposes.

The evaluation of the accuracy and the reliability of the parameters measured by the devices are not based on the claims of the manufacturer but solely on the data available from the scientific literature.

Tensiomed, Hungary

Arteriograph

Arteriograph.png

PWVao

AIXao

SBPao

Green Yes.png
Green Yes.png
Green Yes.png

The first, patented, user-independent, simple and fast, single upper-arm suprasystolic cuff-based method, suitable for daily clinical routine work. Validated invasively. Existing cardiovascular outcome studies. Does not use generalized transfer function (GTF).

Tensiomed, Hungary

Arteriograph24

Arteriograph24.png

PWVao

AIXao

SBPao

Green Yes.png
Green Yes.png
Green Yes.png

User-independent, simple, single upper-arm suprasystolic cuff-based method, suitable for daily clinical routine work (both office measurement and 24-hour monitoring). The measuring algorithm validated invasively. Does not use generalized transfer function (GTF).

Boso, Germany

Boso ABI 100

BosoAbi.png

PWVcf* PWVba**

AIXao

SBPao

Green Yes.png
Red No.png
Red No.png

User-independent oscillometric ABI device, providing PWVba (brachial ankle) and estimated PWVcf (carotid femoral). None of PWVs are validated clinically.

*The device provides an estimation of carotid-femoral PWV from the brachial-ankle PWV using an unknown, unpublished method.

**No validation or other paper available according to Pubmed database.

USCOM, Australia

BP+

BPplus.png

PWVao

AIXao*

SBPao

Red No.png
Green Yes.png
Green Yes.png

User-independent, simple, fast, single upper arm cuff-based oscillometric, suprasystolic method.  SBPao was invasively validated but using standard non-invasive calibration the agreement was weak (mean difference and SD; -7±9 mmHg).

*No paper is available about invasive validation of AIXao.

Pjotr Telegrin, Russia

BPLab

BPlab.png

PWVao*

AIXao**

SBPao**

Red No.png
Green Yes.png
Green Yes.png

User-independent, simple, fast, single upper arm cuff-based oscillometric, suprasystolic method. Uses non-validated generalized transfer function (GTF).

*PWVao correlates 99.7% with age and brachial SBP, indicating that the device does not measure real PWVao.

**No invasive validation of AIXao and SBPao.

HealthSTATS, Singapore

BPro

BPro.png

PWVao

AIXao

SBPao

Red No.png
Green Yes.png
Red No.png

Wrist-sensor based applanation tonometric device. Sensitive to the sensor positioning on the radial artery. Validated invasively, however, in one paper, at lower central SBP values the device overestimated the SBPao, while at higher central SBP values the device underestimated the SBPao.  Requires BP calibration. Does not use generalized transfer function (GTF).

Alam Medical, France

Complior

Complior.png

PWVcf

AIXao

SBPao

Green Yes.png
Green Yes.png
Green Yes.png

Traditional, relatively time-consuming method with piezoelectric sensors, requires trained personnel. Invasively validated PWVcf, SBPao and AIXao. The device may overestimate the PWVao especially in cases of higher PWV, due to the simultaneous recording of carotid and femoral pressure curves, and the opposite propagation of the aortic pulse pressure waves to carotid and femoral sites. Existing several cardiovascular outcome studies.Does not use generalized transfer function (GTF).

Custo med, Germany

Custo Screen 310

PWA_custo-med_1849x800.png

PWVao*

AIXao

SBPao

Red No.png
Green Yes.png
Red No.png

User-independent, simple, and fast single upper-arm cuff based method for 24h measurement of peripheral and central blood pressure. Acquisition of the oscillometric pulse waves takes place during the deflation of the cuff. The algorithm uses adaptive transfer function. SBPao is validated invasively. No paper available about other stiffness parameters.

*No paper is available about invasive PWVao validation.

I.E.M, Germany

Mobil-o-Graph

MobiloGraph.png

PWVao*

AIXao*

SBPao

Red No.png
Green Yes.png
Green Yes.png

User-independent, simple and fast single upper-arm diastolic cuff pressure-based method . Unreliable PWVao measurement (ARC Solver Algorithm). PWVao correlates 99% with age and SBP indicating no real PWVao measurement. SBPao validated invasively. Uses non-validated generalized transfer function (GTF).

*No paper is available about invasive AIXao validation.

Omron, Japan

Omron HEM9000AI

Omron_HEM.png

PWVao

AIXra

SBPao

Red No.png
Green Yes.png
Green Yes.png

User-independent applanation tonometric device providing radial Aix and Central Systolic Blood Pressure (SBPao). SBPao invasively validated. Does not use generalized transfer function (GTF).

Omron, Japan

Omron VP-1000

PWVba

AIXao

SBPao

Green Yes.png
Red No.png
Red No.png

Oscillometric ABI device, providing PWVba (brachial ankle), requiring four cuffs and other sensors. During brachial-ankle PWV measurement the representation of the aorta is partial, although only the aortic PWV has prognostic value for CV endpoints. No validation paper available. Existing outcome study.

Axelife, France

Popmetre

Popmetre.png

PWVft

AIXao

SBPao

Green Yes.png
Red No.png
Red No.png

Photoplethysmographic device measuring PWVft (finger-toe) of which clinical significance has not yet been clarified, because the pulse transit time between finger and toe are influenced not only by the aorta, but also by several muscular type peripheral arteries, too, which prognostic value has not been proven. It shows week correlation with invasively measured aortic PWV.

Diatecne, Italy

Pulsepen

Pulsepen.png

PWVcf

AIXao*

SBPao*

Green Yes.png
Green Yes.png
Green Yes.png

User-dependent and time-consuming applanation tonometric device with ECG gating for PWVao measurement. Its use requires trained personnel. Aortic PWV validated invasively. Does not use generalized transfer function (GTF).

*No paper is available about invasive SBPao and AIXao validation.

Schiller, Germany

Schiller BR-102 plus PWA

BR102.png

PWVao*

AIXao*

SBPao

Red No.png
Green Yes.png
Green Yes.png

User-independent, simple and fast single upper-arm diastolic cuff pressure-based method uses the same algorithm (ARCSolver) available in Mobil-o-Graph. For this reason, we refer to the relevant scientific papers of Mobil-o-Graph. Unreliable PWVao measurement (ARC Solver Algorithm). PWVao correlates 99% with age and SBP indicating no real PWVao measurement. SBPao validated invasively. Uses non-validated generalized transfer function (GTF).

*No paper is available about invasive AIXao validation. 

AtCor, Australia

SphygmoCor CPV

PWVao

PWVcf

AIXao

SBPao

Green Yes.png
Green Yes.png
Green Yes.png

Time-consuming user-dependent applanation tonometric method with ECG gating for PWVao measurement. Its use requires trained personnel. Existing cardiovascular outcome studie. Uses invasively validated generalized transfer function (GTF). Invasively validated AIXao and SBPao. PWVao is also validated invasively, however the limit of agreement according to Bland-Altman plot turned to be high -3.8 m/s (-2SD) and 4.1 m/s (+2SD).

AtCor, Australia

SphygmoCor Xcel

PWVao

PWVcf*

SBPao

AIXao

Green Yes.png
Green Yes.png
Green Yes.png

Oscillometric, user-independent, simple and fast sub-diastolic single upper arm cuff method for PWA, and simultaneous applanation tonometric (carotid) + oscillometric (thigh) method for cfPWV measurement. The PWV measurement is time-consuming and user dependent. The device may overestimate the PWVao especially in cases of higher PWV, due to the simultaneous recording of carotid and femoral pressure curves, and the opposite propagation of the aortic pulse pressure waves to carotid and femoral sites. AIXao and SBPao are validated invasively. However, the device underestimated the AIXao with 7.7 ± 12.7% and the limits of agreement between the differences of the invasively and the device measured values were  -33.1% (-2SD) and +17.7% (+2SD), hardly acceptable for clinical use.

Uses invasively non-validated generalized transfer function to produce aortic pulse pressure waveforms from the brachial artery pressure waveforms (GTF).

*No paper is available about invasive PWVcf validation. 

Skidmore Medical, U.K.

Vicorder

Vicorder.png

PWVao

PWVcf*

SBPao**

AIXao**

Green Yes.png
Green Yes.png
Green Yes.png

User-independent and simple, simultaneous carotid-femoral cuff-based method to assess PWVao. The device may overestimate the PWVao especially in cases of higher PWV, due to the simultaneous recording of carotid and femoral pressure curves, and the opposite propagation of the aortic pulse pressure waves to carotid and femoral sites. Existing cardiovascular outcome study.

*No paper is available about invasive PWVcf validation.

**No validation study available for AIXao and SBPao.

Welch-Allyn, Germany

Welch-Allyn 7100

Welch.png

PWVao*

SBPao

AIXao*

Red No.png
Green Yes.png
Green Yes.png

User-independent, simple and fast single upper-arm diastolic cuff pressure-based method uses the same algorithm (ARCSolver) available in Mobil-o-Graph. For this reason, we refer to the relevant scientific papers of Mobil-o-Graph. Unreliable PWVao measurement (ARC Solver Algorithm). PWVao correlates 99% with age and SBP indicating no real PWVao measurement. SBPao validated invasively. Uses non-validated generalized transfer function (GTF).

*No paper is available about invasive AIXao validation.

**PWA upgrade is not available in the USA.

Abbreviations

PWVao: aortic Pulse Wave Velocity

SBPao: aortic (central) Systolic Blood Pressure

AIXao: aortic Augmentation Index

ao: aortic

ba: brachial-ankle

br: brachial

cf: carotid femoral

ft: finger-toe

ra: radial